By Sanford Robinson Gifford (1823-80. Gifford visited Italy in 1856 and painted this in 1870. Tivoli sits on hills overlooking the plain extending to Rome, about 20 miles to the west. At the base of these hills is the splendid villa built by Emperor Hadrian in the second century AD. Gifford's interest was less in the town itself than in capturing the effect of light on the landscape.
And this is by another American painter, Thomas Cole (1801-48). Cole visited the Tivoli area in 1832 and painted this scene showing the ruins of an aqueduct built in the first century AD to supply water from the mountains behind the town to the city of Rome. Both paintings are via The Metropolitan Museum of Art.